Singapore’s Second National Communication on Climate Change Report to the UNFCCC Secretariat

January 19, 2011 by  
Filed under Insights

NCCC - Report CoverSingapore submitted its Second National Communication on Climate Change report to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat in Nov 2010. The report is an update of the first National Communication report submitted in 2000, and details the strategies for managing sustainable growth and climate change in Singapore.

The national reports are required for Parties to the Convention to submit to the Conference of the Parties (COP), and serve to provide a consistent, comparable, accurate and complete account of action being taken by Parties to the Convention to address climate change in their own country.

The report reiterates Singapore’s constraints, being:

  • a small, densely populated urban city-state
  • energy-poor and alternative energy disadvantaged
  • an export-oriented economy

But it also points out Singapore’s sustainable growth:

NCCC - Sustainable Growth

The report shows that Singapore’s greenhouse gas emissions for 2000 is 38,789.97 Gg CO2-equivalent, and CO2 accounted for 97.3% of total emissions. Singapore’s 2000 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory is shown below:

NCCC - GHG Inventory

The report highlights Singapore’s vulnerability and adaptation measures, including commissioning a vulnerability study to determine the likely long-term effects of climate change on Singapore, such as rainfall patterns, sea levels, extreme weather conditions, building energy consumption, public health, and biodiversity. The study findings will serve to identify new adaptation measures and review existing measures.

The report also highlights Singapore’s key mitigation measures:

  1. Adopt less carbon-intensive fuels such as natural gas
  2. Increase energy efficiency across households, industry, buildings, and transport sectors (driven by the Energy Efficiency Programme Office)
  3. Invest in research and development for clean energy such as solar energy

Click here to download Singapore’s Second National Communication on Climate Change (2010).

Source and images credit: MEWR and NEA

Measure Your Organisation’s Carbon Footprint or Greenhouse Gas Inventory

May 8, 2009 by  
Filed under Insights

emissionsFor an organisation, the term carbon footprint or greenhouse gas inventory includes the carbon emissions and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated directly from the organisation’s activities or use of fuels, and also indirectly from the use of electricity and from the use and disposal of materials, products and services.

By measuring its carbon footprint or GHG inventory, the organisation can manage and reduce emissions over time, and also use it for disclosure to stakeholders or for marketing and corporate social responsibility (CSR) purposes.

After calculating the carbon footprint, it is then possible for the organisation to take active steps to manage the emissions. The organisation can:

  • Set emissions reduction targets
  • Identify opportunities for energy efficiency and reduction of emissions
  • Take action to implement emissions reduction projects
  • Monitor the performance of the projects and improve accordingly

footprint1The approach to an organisation’s carbon footprint usually involves five steps:

  1. Define a consistent methodology
  2. Specify the boundary and scope involved
  3. Obtain the emissions data and calculate the carbon footprint
  4. Verify the results with a third party
  5. Disclose the carbon footprint in a report and to stakeholders


GHG Protocol

If your organisation wishes to calculate your carbon footprint or GHG inventory, you can follow the GHG Protocol produced by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD):

The GHG Protocol Corporate Standard provides standards and guidance for companies and other organizations preparing a GHG emissions inventory. It covers the accounting and reporting of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol — carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).


ISO 14064

You can also follow the ISO 14064 from the International Organization for Standardization, which comprises three standards on specifications and guidance for the organisational and project levels, and for validation and verification. Read more about the standard here.


Carbon Footprint Calculators

Or you can use these online carbon footprint calculators to estimate your carbon emissions:

Some of the above websites provide carbon offsets to help your organisation become carbon neutral.


Carbon Disclosure Project

If you wish to study how companies disclose their greenhouse gas emissions, visit the Carbon Disclosure Project website:

The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) is an independent not-for-profit organisation which holds the largest database of corporate climate change information in the world. The data is obtained from responses to CDP’s annual Information Requests, issued on behalf of institutional investors, purchasing organisations and government bodies. Since its formation in 2000, CDP has become the gold standard for carbon disclosure methodology and process, providing primary climate change data to the global market place.

Image credit: CMSeter; Plusverde.